They’re hunting a mysterious
canada goose clearance Massive Particle Accelerator Revving Up
This fall, physicists plan to throw the switch on what is arguably the largest and most complex science experiment ever conducted. An underground ring of superconducting magnets, reaching from Switzerland into France, will smash together subatomic particles at incredible force.
canadian goose jacket Physicists say they’re not sure what canada goose store will emerge from those collisions. They’re hunting a mysterious, hypothetical particle called the Higgs boson. It is also possible they will make miniature black holes, or discover new dimensions of space time.
Alvaro De Rujula is a staff scientist canada goose coats on sale and theoretical physicist at CERN which stands for Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, or the European Council for Nuclear Research.
De Rujula is smoking in his messy office. He looks like canada goose uk black https://www.goosefrshop.com friday he may have just stepped out Canada Goose Online of another dimension canada goose clearance sale one filled with dry witted, articulate scientists who roll their own cigarettes and wear bright striped sweaters and purple pants.
canada goose deals De Rujula has a kind of weary humor. Perhaps because the field of particle physics, the pursuit of Canada Goose Parka deep subatomic truths, has been in a rut for three decades.
«Particle buy canada goose jacket physics, which is my business, has been quiet for a long time,» De Rujula says, «because we [were] too successful in the 1970s, when a thing called the standard model was invented.»
canada goose store The standard model is arguably one of the crowning canadian goose jacket achievements of modern science. It is a theory of almost everything, that canada goose clearance is, it’s an equation that explains with remarkable precision how particles interact at the smallest levels: the foundation of atoms, of chemistry, of biology, of existence.
canada goose coats on sale «We have never found any deviation from these models, so we’ve been right for 30 years. It’s sort of boring,» De Rujula says as he lights another cigarette.
Beyond the Standard Model
Canada Goose Jackets De Rujula thinks there has to be more than the standard model. It has internal contradictions canada goose black friday sale and it leaves some big, nearly philosophical questions unanswered. For example, why do things weigh what they weigh? What is the «dark matter» that astronomers see tugging on galaxies?
Canada Goose online The answers could come from just outside De Rujula’s window. Three hundred feet uk canada goose underground, workers are installing superconducting magnets in a long tunnel. They are canada goose uk outlet building a new, powerful particle accelerator capable of reproducing energies present just canada goose factory sale after the big bang.
The first accelerator like this was just 12 inches around. Canada Goose Jackets The one under De Rujula’s office is 16 miles. It has the understated name of the «Large Hadron Collider.»
«Physics is Canada Goose Outlet an experimental science,» De Rujula says, «and we learn by doing experiments and seeing how nature behaves.»
The magnets form Canada Goose online a racetrack of sorts, for particles called protons. Protons are nothing special they’re inside every atom. But when this machine is running, the protons will race around at nearly the canada goose coats speed of light. All together, the canada goose protons in the machine will carry the energy of just under 200 pounds of TNT.
buy canada goose jacket cheap «Nothing comes to the surface,» De Rujula says. «That’s why the Swiss milk continues to be so good. The cows don’t care.»
Canada Goose Outlet ‘The Energy Density is Gigantic’
Actually, the bus analogy is only half of the buy canada goose jacket cheap story. There will cheap canada goose uk be bunches of protons moving clockwise and another set moving counterclockwise. Magnets steer Canada Goose sale them, so the infinitesimal particles smash into each other, packing the energy of two buses colliding into a tiny speck of space.
canada goose coats «The energy density is gigantic,» De Rujula says.
From that speck, almost anything can emerge; that’s Einstein’s E=mc2. Energy can be cheap Canada Goose transformed into matter.
canada goose Theorists have all sorts of ideas for what might materialize. De Rujula says the machine will probe what he calls «the vacuum of space.»
buy canada goose jacket «Now that sounds very peculiar,» he concedes, «but the vacuum, surprisingly, is not empty. There is a difference between vacuum and nothingness. Take a room and take everything out, and take the light out, and people out, and air out. When you think it is truly, truly empty. it isn’t canada goose uk shop empty. It can still contain a substance, which is the vacuum, which is not entirely empty in some sense.»
cheap Canada Goose One of the things left in the vacuum is thought to be something called the Higgs field, named after physicist Peter Higgs. The Higgs field would be a kind of omnipresent stickiness that grabs onto everything, making stuff hard to move. This is what we call mass.
canada goose black friday sale ‘The God Particle’
Canada Goose Parka Einstein explained gravity. But he didn’t explain why things have Canada Goose Coats On Sale mass in the first place.
Canada Goose sale «We think that the masses of particles are a sort of friction with the vacuum,» De Rujula says. «They do not travel freely with the vacuum, but [rather] interact with it in some black friday canada goose way.»
Associated with this Higgs field would be Higgs particles, which could be produced by the collisions in the accelerator. One physicist has called the Higgs particle the «God Particle.»
A few non scientists have been worried that physicists are getting a little too close to god for comfort. They’re worried that this experiment could destroy the Earth, because one possibility is that the machine will make miniature black holes. De Rujula describes miniature black holes as particles of extraordinary density compared to usual objects.
He says black holes would certainly be interesting, because they would be evidence for extra tiny dimensions uk canada goose outlet of space time. But he doesn’t think they are likely to appear. And if they do, they’ll be harmless.
«Those black holes will not be dangerous ones of science fiction that eat up everything,» De Rujula promises. «Being so small they sort of break into pieces.».